Aims of Argument 8Th Edition by Timothy W. Crusius, Carolyn E. Channell

In “Aims of Argument,” Timothy W. Crusius and Carolyn E. Channell explore the goals of argumentation and how they can be applied in everyday life. The authors argue that there are three main goals of argumentation: to win, to persuade, and to create understanding. Each goal has its own implications and requires different approaches.

The authors offer strategies for achieving each goal, as well as advice on how to avoid common pitfalls.

The Aims of Argument, 8th edition is a concise guide to the essential ingredients of effective argument. The book covers such topics as developing an arguable thesis, analyzing audience and purpose, using evidence effectively, and avoiding fallacies. In addition, the book includes a section on writing persuasively.

The eighth edition features updated coverage of digital media and its impact on argument. The authors have also expanded their coverage of informal fallacies and added new material on visual rhetoric. As always, the focus is on helping students develop the critical thinking skills they need to be successful in college and beyond.

Aims of Argument 8Th Edition by Timothy W. Crusius, Carolyn E. Channell


What are the Aims of Argument

The aim of argument, or reasoned discourse, is to persuade people to think or act in a certain way. The basic structure of an argument has three parts: premise, conclusion, and a reason or set of reasons (also known as premises) to support the conclusion. A good argument should be clear, logical, and supported by evidence.

People often use the word “argument” to mean a quarrel or disagreement, but that’s not what we’re talking about here. An argument in the sense of reasoned discourse is a discussion in which two or more people try to convince each other of something by giving reasons for believing it. Argument is different from persuasion because persuasion can be used without giving any reasons at all.

You can try to persuade someone to do something simply by appealing to their emotions (for example, by telling them how much you need their help). With argument, on the other hand, you always give reasons for why the person should believe or do what you say. There are two main types of arguments: deductive and inductive.

In a deductive argument, the premises are supposed to guarantee the truth of the conclusion; if they don’t, then the argument is invalid (that is, it fails to prove what it set out to prove). In an inductive argument ,the premises aren’t meantto guarantee the truth of the conclusion; they just make it more probable than it would be without them. Invalid: All men are mortal.

Socrates is mortal. Therefore Socrates is a man./ Valid: Some men are bald.

Bill Clinton is bald./ Probably true: All swans I have seen so far have been white./ False: No one has ever been able to prove that God exists.

/ True: Most experts agree that global warming is happening and that human activity is at least partly responsible for it.

How Can Argument Be Used to Achieve These Aims

There are many ways to use argument to achieve persuasive, informative, and emotional aims. To be persuasive, an argument must be logical and have evidence to support its claims. An effective way to add logic to an argument is to use facts, statistics, and expert opinions.

Emotional appeals can also be useful in persuasion if used correctly. For example, stories and anecdotes can be used to connect with the audience on a personal level and make them more likely to agree with the argument. However, it is important not to overuse emotion in an argument as this can make it seem less credible.

To be informative, an argument must present information in a clear and concise manner. This can be done through the use of data visualisations such as graphs or charts which make complex information easier to understand. Arguments can also be used for emotive purposes such as raising awareness of a issue or promoting positive social change.

What is the Role of Logic in Argument

In logic, an argument is a set of premises that lead logically to a conclusion. The premises of an argument are the reasons given for accepting the conclusion. The role of logic in argument is to provide a way of testing whether the premises actually support the conclusion.

If they do not, then the argument is said to be invalid. There are different types of logical arguments, each with its own set of rules. The most common type of argument is deductive reasoning, which uses specific rules (such as the law of non-contradiction) to arrive at a definite conclusion based on stated premises.

Another type of argument is inductive reasoning, which relies on generalizations and probability to reach a probable conclusion from particular observations. The role of logic in both deductive and inductive arguments is to ensure that the premises offer adequate support for the conclusions drawn from them. In deductive reasoning, this means that the premises must be logically valid; that is, they must lead logically to the desired conclusion when combined with one or more other premise(s).

In inductive reasoning, meanwhile, it simply means that the evidence presented in the premises makes it more likely than not that the desired conclusion is true.

What is the Relationship between Evidence And Reasoning in Argument

The relationship between evidence and reasoning in argument is one of the most important aspects of critical thinking. Reasoning is the process of making sense of things, while evidence is the information that supports our reasoning. In order for an argument to be strong, it must have both good reasoning and good evidence.

Reasoning is important because it allows us to see the connections between things. It helps us to make deductions, inferences, and conclusions based on the evidence we have. Good reasoning can help us to see why something is true, even if we don’t have all of the pieces of evidence yet.

Evidence is important because it gives us facts and data to support our reasoning. Without evidence, our arguments would be based solely on our opinions and beliefs. Evidence allows us to back up our claims with concrete proof.

The best arguments are those that have both strong reasoning and strong evidence. When we can combine these two elements, we can create a persuasive and convincing argument that others will find hard to refute.

What Fallacies Can Occur in Argument, And How Can They Be Avoided

There are many fallacies that can occur in argument, but there are some that are more common than others. The following is a list of fallacies and how to avoid them: 1. Appeal to emotion: This fallacy occurs when someone tries to win an argument by appealing to the emotions of their audience, rather than using logic and reason.

To avoid this, make sure that your arguments are based on facts and logic, not on emotional appeals. 2. Straw man: This fallacy occurs when someone misrepresentstheir opponent’s position in order to make it easier to refute them. To avoid this, make sure that you accurately represent your opponent’s position before you start arguing against it.

3. Ad hominem: This fallacy occurs when someone attacks their opponent personally instead of focusing on the merits of their argument. To avoid this, keep your criticisms focused on the argument itself, not on the person making it. 4. False dichotomy: This fallacy occurs when someone presents two options as if they are the only possible ones, when in reality there may be other options available.

To avoid this, make sure to consider all of the possible options before coming to a conclusion.


The Aims of Argument, 8th edition by Timothy W. Crusius and Carolyn E. Channell is a composition text that helps students understand the purpose of argument, how to analyze audience and purpose, how to develop and organize ideas persuasively, and how to use language effectively in order to communicate their message clearly. The book provides readers with a variety of essay types including position papers, problem-solution essays, proposals, and more so that they can learn the different techniques for each one. In addition, the text covers research skills such as finding sources, evaluating evidence, taking notes, and avoiding plagiarism.

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